耶穌的歷史性可疑

以下是在美國讀大學的兩個華人的辯論。我覺得這個對話對初始認識《聖經》問題的人很有用。文章中的甲方是一個查美國一本百科書的愚昧學員叫小螞蟻,乙方是一個清醒的説明問題的人。我把這篇貼在這裡的原因是因爲以後我準備提供關於泰安那人阿波羅尼俄斯的資料,也會試圖證明他是原始基督徒的偶像而不是“耶穌”。耶穌與阿波羅尼俄斯的故事細節大多是一致的,但前者的歷史性令人懷疑。
关于“耶稣的历史性”的答复·方舟子·
小蚂蚁 wrote:

>  原想在下一节时贴出参考资料,但有人是将与自己不同的意见归为神学来批的,
>为免这样的人误导,小蚂蚁将参考资料在这里单独贴出。小蚂蚁读的罗马史书是没

你要指责别人“误导”,就必须把证据摆出来让大家看看谁在误导,光是列
出参考资料说明不了任何问题,因为你自己就因为在选择参考资料时有倾向
性而受了误导。

>6. New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Release 6, 1993.

我手头刚好有这部百科全书,让我们来看一下这部百科全书都说了些什么,
这位小蚂蚁都受了怎样的误导。〔我的是1992年版,也许与1993年
版的不同〕原文如下:

The Christ-myth school of the early 20th century held that Jesus never lived
but was invented as a peg on which to hang the myth of a dying and rising
God.  Yet the evidence for the historical existence of Jesus is good.

Among Roman historians, TACITUS (Annals 15.44) records that the Christian
movement began with Jesus, who was sentenced to death by Pontius Pilate.
SUETONIUS (Claudius 25.4) refers to the expulsion of the Jews from Rome
because of a riot instigated by one "Chrestus" in AD c.48, and this is
usually taken to be a confused reference to the Christians and their
founder.  PLINY THE YOUNGER (Epistles 10.96), writing to Emperor Trajan,
says that the early Christians sang a hymn to Christ as God.  Most of the
Jewish evidence is late and anti-Christian propaganda, but an early
reference in the Babylonian Talmud says that Jeshu ha-Nocri was a false
prophet who was hanged on the eve of the Passover for sorcery and false
teaching.  The evidence from the historian JOSEPHUS is problematical.  He
recounts (Antiquities 20.9.1) the martyrdom of JAMES, "the brother of Jesus
called the Christ," in AD 62.  Another passage in the Antiquities (18.3.3)
gives an extended account of Jesus and his career, but some features of it
are clearly Christian interpolations. Whether this passage has an authentic
nucleus is debated.
Thus the Roman sources show a vague awareness that Jesus was a historical
figure as well as the object of a cult;  the reliable Jewish sources tell us
that he was a Jewish teacher who was put to death for sorcery and false
prophecy and that he had a brother named James.  The Jewish evidence is
especially valuable because of the hostility between Jews and Christians at
the time:  it would have been easy for the Jewish side to question the
existence of Jesus, but this they never did.

这个条目的作者显然是相信耶酥的存在的,认为证据很充分,然而在提到这些
非基督教的证据时,却不停地在说"confused", "late", "propaganda",
"problematical", "are clearly Chistian interpolations", "debated", 
真不知他怎么就敢说"the evidence is good" ?
就来看看他确定的三条理由吧:
第一,"TACITUS (Annals 15.44) records that the Christian
movement began with Jesus, who was sentenced to death by Pontius Pilate."
这句话是错的。Tacitus有关记载的英文翻译如下:
"derived their name and origin from Christ, who, in the reign of Tiberius,
had suffered death by the sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilate" (Annals
 15.44) 
Tacitus说的是Christ,并非如作者所说的Jesus,历史上自称Christ
的犹太人有的是,并非就一定是耶酥。这是其一。其二,他提到了彼拉多,好象
可以算是这位救世主就是耶酥的旁证,可惜的是,他在提到彼拉多时,象基督徒
那样犯了错误,误称为procurator,而实际上彼拉多的正确称号应该是
prefect。对于历史学家来说,是不可能犯这种外行的错误的,所以这句话或者
是后来的基督徒篡入的,或者是Tacitus根据基督徒的说法写的,算不上旁
证,至少也该算是"problematical"
第二,"an early reference in the Babylonian Talmud says that Jeshu 
ha-Nocri was a false prophet who was hanged on the eve of the Passover 
for sorcery and false teaching."我们已知道此耶酥非彼耶酥,乃是在公元
前78年就被处死的,这是被死海书卷所证实的,对此作者不会不知道,不知
为何不提。
第三,"it would have been easy for the Jewish side to question the
existence of Jesus, but this they never did."这个理由极弱。犹太法典
写于公元后十二世纪,当时无人怀疑耶稣的真实性,犹太人要反对基督教,
与其否认耶稣的存在,不如编造耶稣的故事来得合理。何况历史上有过别的耶
稣,也容易搞混了。

总之,有关耶稣的历史证据都是站不住脚的。作者偏说证据充分,或者是由
于自己的信仰,或者是不想激怒广大的基督徒。

>
>  关于耶稣的生平,文件1是小蚂蚁读罗马史时发现的唯一否定耶稣是真人的
>书,因内容过于简单又没有参考文献和太多带思想框框的陈述,小蚂蚁对此书采取

写罗马史不会去大谈耶稣,因为无可靠的史料可谈,它们也不是研究基督教
和耶稣的专著,不足为凭。当代西方学者中,敢于冒天下之大不韪否证耶稣
的历史性的,有伦敦大学教授G.A. Wells,写过四部这方面的著作,有
波士顿大学教授Michael Martin,写过一部专著。这都是可以在大学图
书馆找到的,不读这些书,就不能说什么“唯一否定耶稣是真人的书”“内
容过于简单又没有参考文献和太多带思想框框的陈述”来误导大家〔身为教
徒居然会说别人带太多思想框框也是奇事一桩〕。研究死海书卷的学者,也
大多认为那位埃森教领导人是耶稣的原型,这实际上也否定了耶稣的存在。

方舟子
Tiu ĉi enskribo estis afiŝita en 新闻与政治. Legosigni la fiksligilon.

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